Özgün Versiyon: Ön Kapakta belirtilen Kitap Yayınından: Ankara, 1994

Geliştirilmiş Versiyon: İngilizce Eğitim Setimiz Ana Kitabından: 2000-2011

İnternet Versiyonu: İzmir, Temmuz 2007; son güncellenme: Temmuz 2011

Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul

 

Dil/Kültür Dizgesi Farklılığından Kaynaklanan

Öğrenim Güçlüğünü Aşmaya Yönelik

Bir Uygulama Örneği

ingilizce koşul kipi

İNGİLİZCE  "IF'Lİ"  CÜMLELER

GENEL  TEST  VE  AÇIKLAMALI  CEVAPLAR

if'li cümleler

BÖLÜM III

Genel Test  /  Yanıtlar, Çevirileri Ve Açıklamalar

 

IT'S TIME TO TEST YOURSELF !!

Choose The Correct Answer

[Açıklamalı Yanıtlar Testin Sonunda]

01 -  I think it's extremely unlikely, but if we do come across ............... wild animals at all, we must be prepared to kill them.

a) some     b)  however    c) any     d) whatever    e) no

02 -  It probably ............... if you'd been more careful.

a) doesn't happen ever again

b) won't ever happen again

c) didn't happen

d) would never have happened

e) hadn't ever happened

03 -  If he had taken my advice, he ............... a rich man by now.

a) will be        b) would be       c) were

d) could be     e) would have been

04 -  If he had taken my advice, he ............... a rich man now.

a) will be         b) would be      c) were

d) was            e) would have been

05 -  She'd be quite pretty if she ............... so much make-up.

a) didn't wear    b) wears       c) will wear

d) won't wear    e) doesn't wear

06 -  I didn't know whether you had to have one of these or not. I would have given it to you freely if you ............... one.

a) had to have   b) had had to have     c) had had

d) had              e) have had to have

07 -  You ............... pay less now if you had decided to become a full member at the time.

a) would have to     b) had to     c) would have had to

d) had had     e) will have to

08 -  I'm sure she would have come and seen me if she .............. the time.

a) has           b) has had          c) would have

d) had had     e) were having

09 -  If I ............... you, I wouldn't buy that old car.

a) had been     b) would be     c) will be     d) am     e) were

10 -  If the fog gets any thicker, they .............. to cancel the game altogether.

a) had to decide       b) might have to decide

c) have decided        d) were going to decide

e) would have decided

11 -  If you really want to lose some weight, you ............... less bread.

a) had better eat       b) have eaten     c) will have eaten

d) are rather eating    e) would eat

12 -  I'm terrified of planes. I'd feel much safer if we ................ by boat.

a) will go            b) 've been going        c) had gone

d) were going      e) go

13 -  I .............. it that color -- if I were you.

a) had painted      b) will paint        c) don't paint

d) didn't paint       e) wouldn't paint

14 -  Unless you ............... the bell twice, nobody will answer it.

a) don't ring          b) ring                c) will ring

d) won't ring         e) rang

15 -  ............... there be any delay, please notify us at once.

a) Unless     b) Can     c) Had     d) Should     e) Were

16 -  I ............... very grateful if you .............. as soon as possible.

a) should have been / would have been replied

b) shall have been / will have been replied

c) am being / will reply

d) should be / would reply

e) were / would reply

17 -  We .............. shopping again today if you had bought enough supplies yesterday.

a) were going          b) didn't have to go     c) are not going

d) don't have to go   e) wouldn't have to go

18 -  If he didn't gamble as much as he does, I'm sure he ............... quite rich by now.

a) would have been   b) could be          c) were

d) would be              e) cannot be

19 -  If it hadn't been for their help, we .............. here now.

a) aren't           b) wouldn't have been       c) weren't

d) are              e) wouldn't be

20 -  I .............. you provided that you promise to be more careful from now on.

a) 'll help          b) had helped         c) won't help

d) wouldn't have helped      e) helped

21 -  As everyone knows, she's a hopeless case. Always and ever. I should have married her if she ............... such a fool.

a) won't be     b) weren't     c) isn't     d) is     e) would be

22 -  If I had known about the cancellation beforehand, I ............... a ticket in the first place. (beforehand = önceden; in the first place = daha işin başında)

a) had never bought

b) would certainly not buy

c) wouldn't have bought

d) don't buy

e) wouldn't buy

23 -  If I hadn't missed that plane, I ............... dead now.

a) would be         b) will be          c) am not

d) would have been     e) were not

24 -  ............... she to appear here suddenly, wouldn't you be greatly surprised?

a) Is       b) If       c) Will       d) Was       e) Were

25 -  Were you ............... on your own for this difficult mission, you should have had a perfect right to protest.

a) being sent       b) to be sent          c) sending

d) to send           e) to have been sent

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

 

YANITLAR, ÇEVİRİLERİ ve AÇIKLAMALAR

01 -  I think it's extremely unlikely, but if we do come across any wild animals, we must be prepared to kill them... Olur da herhangi bir vahşi hayvan... Tümceden olasılığın düşük olduğu anlaşılıyor. Bkn. If-cümlecikte some ve any.

02 -  It probably would never have happened if you'd been more careful... Daha dikkatli olsaydın, muhtemelen böyle bir şey hiç olmayacaktı... Olay geçmişte kalmış = Tip III.

03 -  If he had taken my advice, he would have been a rich man by now... "By now," yani, şimdiye değin = Geçmişten söz ediyoruz, o halde TİP III.

04 -  If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now... "Now" = şimdiki zamanda bir olasılıktan söz ediyoruz, o halde Tip II... Bknz. Tip II ve III birlikte kullanımı.

05 -  She'd be quite pretty if she didn't wear so much make-up... Bu kadar çok makyaj yapmasa oldukça güzel bir kız olur... Geniş zaman = Tip II.

06 -  I didn't know whether you had to have one of these or not. I would have given it to you freely if you had had to have one... Bunlardan birisine sahip olmak zorunda olup olmadığını bilmiyordum. Eğer sahip olmak zorunda idiysen ("idiydiysen") sana bir tane öylesine / bedavacıktan veriverirdim... Kullandığımız fiil öbeği: "have to have" = birincisi yardımcı fiil, ikincisi asıl fiil, yani, "sahip olmak zorunda olmak"... Fiilimiz örneğin, "have to go", yani "gitmek zorunda olmak," olsaydı = "had had to go," diyecektik. Dolayısıyla Tip III = "had had to have."

07 -  You would have to pay less now if you had decided to become a full member at the time... = Eğer o zamanlar tam üye olmağa karar vermiş olsaydın, şimdi daha az ödeme yapmak zorunda kalacaktın. (Geçmiş için Tip III, şimdiki zaman için Tip II kullanıldı.)

08 -  I'm sure she would have come and seen me if she had had the time... Eminim ki zamanı olsa gelip beni görürdü... Geçmişte = III. Tip. Fiilimiz, To have. Örneğin, fiilimiz "to see" olsaydı, "had seen" diyecektik. O halde, "had had."

09 -  If I were you, I wouldn't buy that old car.

10 -  If the fog gets any thicker, they might have to decide to cancel the game altogether... Tümüyle iptal etmek... Gelecekteki bir olasılıktan söz ediyoruz. Dolayısıyla Tip I. "May" yerine "might" tercihi olasılığın daha düşük olduğunu gösteriyor. Bknz. If-cümlecikte yardımcı fiiller.

11 -  If you really want to lose some weight, you had better eat less bread... "Had better," tıpkı may/can/must gibi bir yardımcı fiildir, onlar gibi kullanılır.

12 -  I'm terrified of planes. I'd feel much safer if we were going by boat... Cümleden şu anda uçağa binmek üzere yada uçakta olduğumuz anlaşılıyor. "Şu anda gemiyle gidiyor olsak kendimi daha emniyette hissederdim." = Present anlamlı olduğundan = Tip II.

13 -  I wouldn't paint it that color -- if I were you... Senin yerinde olsam o renge boyamam. Şimdiki zaman = Tip II.

14 -  Unless you ring the bell twice, nobody will answer it... Gelecek zaman = Tip I.

15 -  Should there be any delay, please notify us at once... "Notify us" emrinin gereği gelecek zamanda gerçekleşecektir. Dolayısıyla, Tip I. Ayrıca, bknz. "Devrik Tipler".

16 -  I should be very grateful if you would reply as soon as possible... Bir nezaket cümlesi. Bknz. if-cümlecikte yardımcı fiiller.

17 -  We wouldn't have to go shopping again today if you had bought enough supplies yesterday. Eğer dün yeterli miktarda malzeme satın almış olsaydın, bugün yeniden alışverişe gitmek zorunda kalmayacaktık. Geçmiş zaman için Tip III, şimdiki zaman için Tip II.

18 -  If he didn't gamble as much as he does, I'm sure he would have been quite rich by now. Her zaman kumar oynadığı anlaşılıyor. Genelde, yani Tip II, bu kadar çok kumar oynamasa, şimdiye değin, yani geçmişten günümüze zengin olmuş olurdu = Tip III.

19 -  If it hadn't been for their help, we wouldn't be here now. Geçmişte bize yardım ettiler = Tip III. Yoksa şimdi burada olmazdık = Tip II.

20 -  I'll help you provided that you promise to be more careful from now on. From now on = Bugünden itibaren, yani gelecekte = Tip I.

21 -  As everyone knows, she's a hopeless case. Always and ever. I should have married her if she weren't such a fool... Herkesin bildiği gibi, umutsuz vakadır. Herzaman böyledir kendisi... Böylesine bir budala olmasa = Tip II, şimdiye değin çoktan onunla evlenmiş olurdum = Tip III.

22 -  If I had known about the cancelation beforehand, I wouldn't have bought a ticket in the first place... İptal konusunu önceden öğrenmiş olsaydım, daha işin başında bilet almazdım, almamış olurdum.

23 -  If I hadn't missed that plane, I would be dead now.... Eğer o uçağı kaçırmamış olsaydım -- ki kaçırdım = Tip III -- şu anda ölmüş olacaktım.. Şu anda ölü değil, konuşuyor olduğuma göre Tip II.

24 -  Were she to appear here suddenly, wouldn't you be greatly surprised? Cümlenin ikinci bölümünden şimdiki zamana ilişkin bir belirleme yapıldığı anlaşılıyor: Ansızın ortaya çıkıverse, çok şaşırır mısın?

25 -  Were you to have been sent on your own for this difficult mission, you should have had a perfect right to protest. Cümlenin ikinci bölümünden geçmiş zamana ilişkin bir belirleme yapıldığı anlaşılıyor. Koşul cümleciği geçmiş zamana atmak için perfect mastar kullandık: "to have been sent" = "gönderilmiş olmak"... Cümlenin anlamı: Eğer bu zor görev için tek başına gönderilmiş olsaydın, şikayet etmek için pekala haklı bir sebebin olabilirdi... İma edilen anlam: Ama tek başına gönderilmedin, şikayet etmek için de haklı bir nedenin yok...

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

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