The  Participles:  Açıklamalara  Dönüş

The Participles: Test Sorularına Dönüş

[Tıkladığınızda yeni pencere açılacaktır]

BÖLÜM - 14/C

İNGİLİZCE'DE ORTAÇLAR

TEST CEVAPLARI

KISALTILMIŞ SIFAT-CÜMLECİKLER

KISALTILMIŞ  ZARF-CÜMLECİKLER

 

TEST 01        TEST 02       TEST 03

TEST O4       TEST 05

 

 

T E S T  --  0 1

Bu testin cevapları, sorularla birlikte Test sayfasında verilmişti:

Test Sorularına Dönüş

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

 

T E S T  --  0 2

Cümleleri Participle Yapıları Kullanarak "Kısaltmak"

Sorular yeniden gösterilmektedir; fakat orada yapılan açıklamalar burada tekrarlanmamıştır.

 01   While she was tidying up the drawers she found some old photographs.
------> (While) Tidying up the drawers she found some old photographs.

 02   She had been busy feeding the baby and had forgotten all about the frying pan.
------> Being busy feeding the baby, she had forgotten all about the frying pan.

 03   Since they read all the national dailies avidly, they do know what's going on in the country.
------> Reading all the national dailies avidly, they do know what's going on in the country.

 04   They didn't have enough money last year, so they spent their holidays at home.
------> Not having enough money last year, they spent their holidays at home.

 05   My daughter was sitting in front of the telly. She was watching a film.
------> My daughter was sitting in front of the telly watching a film. veya,
------> Sitting in front of the telly, my daughter was watching a film. veya,

------> My daughter, sitting in front of the telly, was watching a film. veya,
------> My daughter was -- sitting in front of the telly -- watching a film.

NOT: İzleyen benzer cümlelerde, bu olasılıkların hepsi gösterilmeyecektir.

 06   She was listening to some loud music. She didn't hear the doorbell.
------> Listening to some loud music, she didn't hear the doorbell.

 07   The room looks like a battlefield because it has not been tidied up yet.
------> Not having been tidied up yet, the room looks like a battlefield.

 08   She was walking home and she ran into an old friend of hers.
------> Walking home, she ran into an old friend of hers.

 09   There was something burning in the house. I smelled it.
------> I smelled something burning in the house.

 10   There was a car coming towards her. She didn't see it.
------> She didn't see the car coming towards her.

 11   I read a lot of books which are written by British authors.
------> I read a lot of books written by British authors.

 12   When I travel abroad, I make sure that I stay in first-class hotels.
------> When travelling abroad, I make sure that I stay in first-class hotels.

 13   She didn't hear the doorbell, so she missed the postman.
------> Not hearing the doorbell, she missed the postman.

 14   Does Meltem ever talk to Melahat? Do you ever see it?
------> Do you ever see Meltem talking to Melahat?

 15   She was blushing. She could feel it.
------> She could feel herself blushing.

 16   The film was better than everyone had expected.
------> The film was better than expected.

 17   The film is based on real events and tells the true story of Sülün Osman.
------> Based on real events, the film tells the true story of Sülün Osman.

 18   The young star was admired by everyone. He began to grow arrogant.
------> Admired by everyone, the young star began to grow arrogant.

 19   He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt dejected.
------> Dumped by his girlfriend, he felt dejected.

 20   The night watchman switched off the lights before he went to get a little snooze.
------> Having switched off the lights, the night watchmen went to get a little snooze.

 21   The boy asked his father's permission and then went out to play.
------> Having asked his father's permission, the boy went out to play.

 22   I hadn't had a wink of sleep all night long. Therefore, I wasn't able to concentrate.
------> Not having had a wink of sleep all night long, I wasn't able to concentrate.

 23   I had not seen him since our childhood days. I didn't recognize him.
------> Not having seen him since our childhood days, I didn't recognize him.

 24   After the police officer stopped his car, he wanted to see his documents.
------> Having stopped his car, the police officer wanted to see his documents.

 25   We finished the work and we felt relieved.
------> Having finished the work, we felt relieved.

 26   We had worked nonstop all through the day. We were quite exhausted in the evening.
------> Having worked nonstop all through the day, we were quite exhausted in the evening.

 27   After I had told them the news, I took my leave of them.
------> Having told them the news, I took my leave of them. veya,
------> After telling them the news, I took my leave of them.

 28   After he had finished his homework, he went into the living room to watch television.
------> Having finished his homework, he went into the living room to watch television.

 29   Because they had been told the questions in advance, they worked hard and did very well in the exam.
------> Having been told the questions in advance, they worked hard and did very well in the exam. [UYARI: Bu metin, Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul'un "Essential English for Turkish Speakers" kitabından ve websitesinden alıntıdır. Elektronik Olsun Yada Olmasın Hertürlü Basım, Yayın, Dağıtım Hakları Saklıdır. Ticari Amaçla Herhangi Bir Formatta Çoğaltmak veya Internet'te Yayınlamak Dava ve Tazminat Konusudur. http://www.ingilizce-ders.com/ingilizce-ders/pratik-ingilizce.htm]

 30  When we arrived at the stadium gate, we saw an enormous queue.
------> Arriving at the stadium gate, we saw an enormous queue.

 31  As he looked over his shoulder, he saw a man running after him.
------> Looking over his shoulder, he saw a man running after him.

 32  When we saw pieces of broken glass on the floor, we realised that we had been burgled.
------> Seeing pieces of broken glass on the floor, we realised that we had been burgled.

 33  I noticed that there had been an accident ahead and stopped my car.
------> Noticing that there had been an accident ahead, I stopped my car.

 34  If you use it sparingly, this stock should last you until next year.
------> Used sparingly, this stock should last you until next year.
veya, şöyle bir anlatıma da dönüştürebilirsiniz:

------> Using it sparingly, you can make this stock last you until next year.

 35  Because I had taken the wrong bus, I found myself in Çankaya, and not in Balgat.
------> Having taken the wrong bus, I found myself in Çankaya, and not in Balgat.

 36  After I left the Clock Tower behind I drove along the main street and before long I could see the lights on the Atatürk Square.
------> Having left the Clock Tower behind, I drove along the main street and before long I could see the lights on the Atatürk Square. veya,
------> After leaving the Clock Tower behind, I drove along the main street and before long I could see the lights on the Atatürk Square.

Veya, Saat Kulesi'ni geçtikten hayli kısa süre sonra diğerleri gerçekleşmişse:
------> On leaving the Clock Tower behind, I drove along the main street and before long I could see the lights on the Atatürk Square.

 37  I hadn't had a shower for a whole week. I dashed into the bathroom.
------> Not having had a shower for a whole week, I dashed into the bathroom.

 38  I don't wish to appear nosey, but I must ask you to tell us what your business is here.
------> Though not wishing to appear nosey, I must ask you to tell us what your business is here.

 39  I was in no mood for a conversation -- I quickly said goodbye and left.
------> Being in no mood for a conversation, I quickly said goodbye and left. [Bir aşağıdaki olasılığa göre çok daha idiomatik ve kulağa hoş gelen bir cümle]
------> Not being in any mood for a conversation, I quickly said goodbye and left.

 40  When one looks back upon those times, one can see that everything was a lot better.
------> Looking back upon those times, one can see that everything was a lot better.

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

 

T E S T  --  0 3

Kaynak Cümleyi Saptayınız

Tersine İşlem

Sorular yeniden gösterilmektedir.

Örnek:

Verilen Cümle:

 01   Having finished the work, I went home.

       ise, demek ki, kaynak cümle şu olmalı:

------> After I had finished the work, I went home.


 01  A funny-looking man wearing a funny-looking hat has just crossed the street.
------> A funny-looking man who is wearing a funny-looking hat has just crossed the street.

 02  A funny-looking man wearing a funny-looking hat had just crossed the street.
------> A funny-looking man who wore a funny-looking hat had just crossed the street.

NOT: Soru 01 ve 02 ile ilgili açıklama: "Eş-zamanlılık/ard-zamanlılık" değerlendirmesinin, bizim şu an içinde bulunduğumuz zaman açısından değil, cümlede geçen zamanların birbirine göre olan ilişkisinden kaynaklandığını unutmayınız. Soru 01'de, cümledeki zaman, bizim şimdi içinde bulunduğumuz zamanla çakışıyor. Soru 02'de ise, olay bize göre geçmiş zamandadır; fakat olaya o noktadan bakıldığında başında şapka olan adam ve karşıdan karşıya geçme durumu arasındaki zaman ilişkisi "present" tır: "Başında tuhaf bir şapka olan tuhaf görünümlü bir adam az önce karşıdan karşıya geçti." -- "Başında tuhaf bir şapka olan tuhaf görünümlü bir adam az önce karşıdan karşıya geçmişti." Her iki durumda da, olay anında "başında tuhaf bir şapka olan" bir adamdan söz ediyoruz; "başında eskiden şapka olmuş olan" bir adamdan değil. [UYARI: Bu metin, Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul'un "Essential English for Turkish Speakers" kitabından ve websitesinden alıntıdır. Elektronik Olsun Yada Olmasın Hertürlü Basım, Yayın, Dağıtım Hakları Saklıdır. Ticari Amaçla Herhangi Bir Formatta Çoğaltmak veya Internet'te Yayınlamak Dava ve Tazminat Konusudur. http://www.ingilizce-ders.com/ingilizce-ders/pratik-ingilizce.htm]

 03  She lay there thinking about the events of the day.
------> She lay there and thought about the events of the day. veya,
------> She lay there; she was thinking about the events of the day. (veya, iki ayrı cümle)

 04  She was sitting quietly on the sofa, thinking about the events of the day.
------> She was sitting quietly on the sofa. She was thinking about the events of the day.
(veya noktalı virgül, veya "and" ile)

 05  We were sitting in the bus shelter, waiting for the rain to stop.
------> We were sitting in the bus shelter and waiting for the rain to stop.

 06  The children went from house to house, collecting Bayram candies.
------> The children went from house to house. They collected Bayram candies. (veya, They were collecting .... .)

 07  Having been to a disco the night before, I overslept that morning.
------> I had been to a disco the night before and overslept that morning.

 08  Being very tall, he decided to join the school's basketball team.
------> He was very tall, so he decided to join the school's basketball team.

 09  Some of the Picasso paintings stolen from the National Museum in Baghdad mysteriously reappeared in Urfa.
------> Some of the Picasso paintings had been stolen from the National Museum in Baghdad. They mysteriously reappeared in Urfa. veya,
------> Some of the Picasso paintings which had been stolen from the National Museum in Baghdad mysteriously reappeared in Urfa.

 10  She filled the washing machine and then switched it on.
------> After filling the washing machine, she switched it on.

 11  Being a vegetarian, Meltem doesn't eat meat.
------> Meltem is a vegetarian and doesn't eat meat. veya,
------> Because Meltem is a vegetarian, she doesn't eat meat.

 12  Not feeling well, I took the day off from work.
------> Since I didn't feel well, I took the day off from work. [Because/Since/As]

 13  Having saved some money for his summer holiday, he flew to a Malaysian seaside resort.
------> He had saved some money for his summer holiday. He flew to a Malaysian seaside resort.

 14  Not having been there before, he was stunned before the sight.
------> He had not been there before. He was stunned before the sight.

 15  Before leaving the house, he switched off the lights.
------> Before he left the house, he switched off the lights.

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

 

T E S T  --  0 4

HANGİSİ DOĞRU ??

Sorular yeniden gösterilmektedir.

 01  Tense uyumu:

 A  Having watched that film a dozen times, she knows the dialogues by heart.
 B  Having watched that film a dozen times, she knew the dialogues by heart.

Yanıt: İkisi de doğru. Kaynak cümlelerden birincisi günümüzdeki bir durumdan, ikincisi geçmişteki bir durumdan söz ediyor. Fakat, her ikisinde de "filmin bir düzine kez seyredilmiş" olması, "diyalogların ezbere bilinmesi durumunun" öncesinde o açıdan aralarında fark yok) -- dolayısıyla perfect participle.

 A  Because she has watched that film a dozen times, she knows the dialogues by heart.
 B  Because she had watched that film a dozen times, she knew the dialogues by heart.

*  *  *  *  *

 02  Mantıklı dönüştürme:

Kaynak Cümle: After I had dropped him at his school, I drove straight to the supermarket.

 A  Having dropped him at his school, I drove straight to the supermarket.
 B  Having driven straight to the supermarket, I dropped him at his school.

Yanıt: "A" şıkkı doğru. "B" şıkkında öncelik-sonralık hatası var. Hangi eylem daha önce yapılmıştı?

*  *  *  *  *

 03  Tense uyumu ve Zaman Mantığı:

Kaynak Cümle: While she was preparing dinner, she cut her finger.

 A  While preparing dinner, she cut her finger.
 B  Having cut her finger, she was preparing dinner.

Yanıt: "A" şıkkı doğru.

*  *  *  *  *

 04  Mantık Hatası:

Kaynak Cümle: Children who attend this school have to wear uniform.

 A  Children having to wear uniform attend this school.
 B  Children attending this school have to wear uniform.

Yanıt: "B" şıkkı doğru.

*  *  *  *  *

 05  Mantık Hatası:

Kaynak Cümle: The meeting had been planned carefully and (it) was a great success.

 A  Having been a great success, the meeting was planned carefully.
 B  The meeting, having been planned carefully, was a great success.

Yanıt: "B" şıkkı doğru.

*  *  *  *  *

 06  Mantık Hatası:

Kaynak Cümle: The boy is picked up by his father, so he doesn't have to wait for the school bus.

 A  The boy, being picked up by his father, doesn't have to wait for the school bus.
 B  Not having to wait for the school bus, the boy is picked up by his father.

Yanıt: "A" şıkkı doğru. Çocuk, okul otobüsünü beklemek zorunda olmadığı için mi babası tarafından alınıyor: yoksa, babası tarafından alındığı için mi okul otobüsünü beklemek zorunda değil??

*  *  *  *  *

 07  Mantıklı Dönüştürüm:

Kaynak Cümle: He was waiting just outside the door. He overheard every word of the conversation. [Kapının hemen dışında bekliyordu. Konuşmanın her kelimesini işitti.]

 A  Waiting just outside the door, he overheard every word of the conversation.
 B  Overhearing every word of the conversation, he waited (was waiting) just outside the door.

Yanıt: Burada "A" şıkkı doğru sayılmak gerekir. Fakat, verilmek istenen vurguya göre "B" şıkkındaki cümlenin de geçerli olacağı durumlar olabilir: "He used to overhear every word spoken inside, because he waited (was waiting) just outside the door."

*  *  *  *  *

 08  Mantıklı Dönüştürüm:

Kaynak Cümle: All of her friends had great fun at her birthday party. They played silly games.

 A  All of her friends had great fun at her birthday party, playing silly games.
 B  Playing silly games, all of her friends had great fun at her birthday party.
 C  Playing silly games at her birthday party, all of her friends had great fun.
 D  All of her friends, playing silly games, had great fun at her birthday party.
 E  All of her friends, playing silly games at her birthday party, had great fun.

Yanıt: Beşi de doğru!!

*  *  *  *  *

 09  Olumsuzun aktarılışı:

Kaynak Cümle: She didn't know what to do in such a situation. She came to me for advice.

 A  Not coming to me for advice, she knew what to do in such a situation.
 B  Not knowing what to do in such a situation, she came to me for advice.

Yanıt:  "B" şıkkı... Esasen "A" şıkkı hayli anlamsız.

*  *  *  *  *

 10  Hangisi Doğru?

Kaynak Cümle: They were busy cleaning up their tent and they didn't see the bear.

 A  Being busy cleaning up their tent, they didn't see the bear.
 B  Busy cleaning up their tent, they didn't see the bear.

Yanıt: "A" şıkkı "Participle-Cümlecik ile dönüştürüm... "B" şıkkı sıfat öbeği ile dönüştürüm... İkisi de mümkün ve muteber...

BAŞA DÖNÜŞ

 

T E S T  --  0 5

Aşağıdaki cümleleri yapı ve anlam bakımından irdeleyiniz. "Kısaltılmamış" yapıyı belirlemeğe çalışınız. Cümleleri Türkçe'ye çeviriniz.

Cümlelerin herzaman tek parça halinde çeviri vermeyeceğini, çoğu zaman bölüp parçalamak gerekeceğini göreceksiniz. Türkçe'de en güzel, en kolay anlaşılır cümle, kısa olan tümcedir.

Kimi zaman da zarf-cümlecik yerine Türkçe'de sıfat-cümlecik yada bunun tersinin daha iyi sonuç vereceğini göreceksiniz.

Sorular yeniden gösterilmektedir. Çevirilere gelince, her çevirmenin bir yoğurt yiyişi vardır... Aşağıdakiler benim "önerilerim": Üsluba takılmayınız.

 01  Red Kid rode away, a cigarette hanging from his lips... He rode away, having finished his drink... He fired his gun, wounding one of the Daltons.

Red Kid atını sürüp uzaklaştı. Dudaklarında bir sigara asılıydı... İçkisini bitirdikten sonra, atına atlayıp uzaklaştı... Silahını ateşledi ve Daltonlar'dan birini yaraladı.

Çünkü, kaynak cümleler şöyledir: Red Kid rode away. A cigarette was hanging from his lips... He rode away after he had finished his drink. veya After he had finished his drink, he rode away... He fired his gun and wounded one of the Daltons.

 02  One of the Dalton Brothers fell, hitting and hurting his elbow against the table.

Dalton Biraderlerden biri düştü. Düşerken, dirseğini masaya çarpıp incitti.

Kaynak cümle: One of the Dalton Brothers fell and he hit and hurt his elbow against the table as he fell. veya, One of the Dalton Brothers fell. As he fell, he hit and hurt his elbow against the table.

 03  Looking after the baby in the park, he was also keeping an eye on the main entrance to the building. People, taking off their hats, were entering the building.

Bir yandan parkta bebeğe gözkulak olurken, bir yandan da binanın girişini gözlem altında tutuyordu. İnsanlar şapkalarını çıkararak binaya girmekteydiler.

As he was looking after the baby in the park, he was also... etc. People were taking off their hats and entering the building. (People took their hats off and entered...)

 04  Having eaten his sandwich in a great hurry, he had rushed out of the house. He made a point of staying away from crowded streets on the way, being worried that he might get recognized. (to make a point of doing something = bir şeyi yapmağa özel dikkat göstermek, mutlaka ve herzaman yapmak)

Sandövicini büyük aceleyle yiyip evden fırlamıştı. Yolda kalabalık caddelerden uzak durmağa özen gösterdi, çünkü tanınmaktan çekiniyordu.

After he had eaten his sandwich in a great hurry, he had rushed out of the house. ...crowded streets on the way, because he was worried ...etc.

 05  Being a bit of an amateur collector himself, he was naturally very much interested in that peculiar subject of their conversation.

Kendisi de biraz bir amatör koleksiyoncu olduğu için, tabiatıyla onların bu garip konuşma konusuna büyük ilgi duymuştu.

Because/since/as he was a bit of an amateur collector himself, he was ...etc.

 06  Children attending this school have to wear uniform.

Bu okula devam eden öğrenciler üniforma giymek zorundadırlar.

Children who attend this school have to wear uniform.

 07  Those getting impatient were beginning to look for something to do to while away the time. (to while away the time = to pass time)

Sabırsızlanmağa başlayanlar vakit öldürmek için yapacak birşeyler aramağa başlamışlardı.

Those who were getting impatient were beginning ...etc.

 08  Weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe. (to succeed = 1. başarılı olmak, başarmak... 2. ardından gelmek, yerine geçmek, halef olmak... Successor = halef, bir öncekinin yerine geçen kişi. Successive : ardarda gelen, ardışık...)

Ardarda fırtınalardan zayıflamış olan köprü artık emniyetli değildi.

Because/since/as it was/had been weakened by successive storms, the bridge ...etc. ["Daha önceki fırtınalar tarafından" kavramını vurgulamak istersek: "Having been weakened...]

 09  Convinced that they were trying to poison him, he refused to eat the food they gave him.

Kendisini zehirlemeğe çalıştıklarından emin olduğu için, verdikleri yiyecekleri yemeğı reddediyordu.

Because/since/as he was convinced that they were ...etc. veya, iki ayrı cümle: He was convinced that they were trying to poison him. He refused to eat the food they gave him.

 10  Being an unmarried mother herself, she would sympathize with you and appreciate your problems.

Kendisi de evlenmemiş bir anne olduğu için, size sempati ile yaklaşacak ve sorunlarınızı anlayacaktır.

Kaynak cümle: Because/since/as she is an unmarried mother herself, ...etc..

 11  Repeating once more what he had already told them twice, Güneş tried to reassure them of the company's future.

Daha önce iki kez daha söylemiş olduğu şeyleri tekrar ederek, ............... .

Güneş repeated once more what he had already told them twice and tried to reassure them ...etc.

 12  Having climbed up two-thirds of the path to the summit, we could not give up now.

Zirveye giden yolun üçte ikisini tırmandıktan sonra, artık şimdi vazgeçemezdik.

After we had climbed two-thirds of the path ...etc. veya iki ayrı cümle: We had climbed up two-thirds of the path to the summit. We could not give up now.

 13  The magazine finally ceased publication, its circulation having been dropping steadily over a period of years. (steadily = sürekli şekilde, muntazaman)

Kaynak cümle: .................. because its circulation had been dropping steadly over a period of years. veya, iki ayrı cümle: The magazine finally ceased publication. Its circulation had dropped ...etc.

 14  The country is experiencing its hardest winter for years, some areas in the east having lain under a thick blanket of snow for nearly five months now.

Kaynak cümle: ... hardest winter for years and some areas in the east have lain under a thick blanket of snow ...etc. (Veya, iki ayrı tümce: ...... for years. Some areas .......) Burada, başka pekçok yerde de olduğu gibi, çeviri için kaynak cümleleri tercih etmeniz Türkçe'nin yapısına daha uygun olur. [UYARI: Bu metin, Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul'un "Essential English for Turkish Speakers" kitabından ve websitesinden alıntıdır. Elektronik Olsun Yada Olmasın Hertürlü Basım, Yayın, Dağıtım Hakları Saklıdır. Ticari Amaçla Herhangi Bir Formatta Çoğaltmak veya Internet'te Yayınlamak Dava ve Tazminat Konusudur. http://www.ingilizce-ders.com/ingilizce-ders/pratik-ingilizce.htm]

 15  It is difficult to make both ends meet these days, the taxes being so high. (= iki yakayı bir araya getirmek)

Bugünlerde iki yakayı biraraya getirmek çok zor, çünkü vergiler bu derece yüksek. veya, Vergiler bu derece yüksek olduğu için, bugünlerde iki yakayı biraraya getirmek çok zor.

It is difficult to make both ends meet these days -- because the taxes are so high. (Yada, tabiatıyla iki ayrı tümce)

 16  From my study window I could see the ships sailing in and out of the harbour.

ships that sailed in and out...

 17  His last remarks left me wondering what he was driving at. (what he was driving at = sözü nereye getirdiği)

Söylediği son sözler beni lafı nereye getirmeğe çalıştığı konusunda kuşkuda bıraktı.

 18  I found it difficult to get the things going again.

Herbirşeyleri yine yürür/işler duruma getirmekte büyük güçlük çektim.

 19  Not knowing what to do in such a situation, she came to me for advice.

Böyle bir durumda ne yapacağını bilmediği için, .................

Because/since/as she didn't know what to do ...etc.

 20  Generally speaking, he didn't think much of modern painting. This wasn't so surprising, considering his academic training. (generally speaking = genelde söylemek gerekirse, genel konuşacak olursak)

Genel hatlarıyla söylemek gerekirse, modern resmi pek beğenmiyordu. Kendisinin akademik bir eğitim almış olduğunu düşünecek olursak (= dikkate alırsak) bunda şaşacak pek birşey yoktu.

If we should put it in general terms... This wasn't so surprising if/when we consider his academic training.

 21  The explorers had a long talk with the natives, the guide acting as their interpreter.

İki ayrı cümle olarak değerlendiriniz. Veya, şöyle çevirmek de hakkınız: Gezginler yerlilerle uzun bir görüşme gerçekleştirirken, rehberleri de çevirmenlik yaptı.

... with the natives and their guide acted as their interpreter. ... with the natives. Their guide was acting as their interpreter.

 22  Not having had a wink of sleep the previous night, she felt rather irritable all through the morning. (wink = göz kırpması... "a wink of sleep" = bir damla uyku...)

Önceki gece bir damla uyku uyumamış olduğu için, ...................... .

Because/since/as she had not had a wink of sleep the previous night ...etc.

 23  The site being excavated dates back to the early Neolithic period. Having already been excavated a number of times, the site now keeps no more secrets for the archaeologists.

Kazı yapılmakta olan alan erken Neolitik döneme değin gidiyor. (Bugüne değin) birkaç kez kazı yapılmış olduğu için, .................. .

The site which is being excavated goes back ...etc. As it has already been excavated a number of times ...etc.

 24  None of those present having any further remarks to make, the chairperson closed the meeting. (present = mevcut, orada bulunan)

Orada bulunan kişilerden hiçbirisinin söyleyecek başka sözü olmadığı için, ............. .

Since none of the people present had any further remarks to make, ...etc. (Veya, iki ayrı tümce)

 25  Having completed this particular exercise, I now feel quite confident that I can answer any probable exam question on the use of the participles.

Kaynak Cümle: After I have completed... veya daha güzeli, Now that I have completed...

Bu egzersizi yapıp bitirmiş olarak, artık sınavlarda ortaçların kullanımı üzerine sorulabilecek hertürlü soruyu cevaplayabileceğim konusunda kendime büyük güven duyuyorum.

AA-miiin, ve İnşallah !!

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