Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul

Hacettepe Üniversitesi eski öğr. üyesi

PRACTICAL ENGLISH FOR TURKS

Advanced Level Exercises

A Weekly Supplement Issued On Thursdays

02/28/02 - 0003

 

I should freely admit, by all indigenous standards of our beloved country, to being the late-developer that I am... I was forty before I discovered that people are actually capable of telling lies !  It took me another five years to discover that most people do so most of the time !!  At fifty, I discovered that I was no --

exception... Well, at least I am qualified enough to present you with an exhaustive list of definitions for various types of liars and kinds of lying, to be followed by a self-revealing test for all -- which would provide proof of moral uprightness if failed in !!  WOW !!... izbul 

   

READING COMPREHENSION

PARASITIC AND VIRUTIC DISEASES

    Man, like other animals, is host to a great number of parasites: foreign organisms which cling to the skin or live inside the body. Most of these parasites cause us little discomfort, but a few are responsible for serious parasitic diseases particularly in tropical countries. Malaria and sleeping sickness, for instance, which are caused by small protozoan parasites consisting of a single cell, are still major causes of death in many parts of the world. Other parasitic diseases like schistosomiasis, which are due to much larger worm-like parasites, cause relatively few deaths but seriously affect the well-being of more than two hundred million people. In Western countries the parasites of man are relatively unimportant, although livestock are seriously affected. We are much more familiar with infectious diseases caused by very small organisms called microbes: the bacteria and viruses. To the biologist these microbes are parasitic too, but the diseases they cause are, for convenience, not referred to as parasitic. Not so many years ago, some of the diseases caused by bacteria or viruses like cholera, pneumonia, smallpox, and poliomyelitis were an important cause of deaths in Western countries. Nowadays cases of some of these diseases are so rare that medical students feel fortunate ever to see them.

John Clegg, "The Immunology of Parasitic Diseases", Biology in Human Affairs, 1974

(1) Man...  (a) likes the other creatures... (b) feeds, keeps, breeds and cares for his parasites... (c) is the carrier of many parasites... (d) usually kills his host... (e) likes to cling to foreign organisms...

Comment: This is the type of question which does not really depend upon a close reading of the passage itself; common sense should prove an adequate guide in choosing your answer.

(2) Which of the following is not a parasitic disease?...  (a) Sleeping sickness... (b) Protozoa... (c) Schistosomiasis... (d) Malaria... (e) None of them is...

Comment: And, this is the type of question which can be answered by referring to one's own mastery of the subject...

General Comment: Yet, it might still be a good idea to refer to the text itself briefly, for it may have been written by an unknowledgeable person, a madman, or a teaser or jester... After all, you are expected to display your powers of "Reading Comprehension", and it is the passage itself that counts...

(3) Schistosomiasis...  (a) has caused two hundred million people to die... (b) is caused by a parasite consisting of a single cell... (c) likes parasites more than worms... (d) is a parasitic disease... (e) is itself a large parasite...

Comment: To answer this and the following questions, you must go back to the passage and check the text itself for relevant/appropriate information.

(4) Who or what is more likely to be affected by parasites in Western countries?...  (a) Man... (b) Smallpox... (c) Livestock... (d) Microbes... (e) Schistosomiasis...

(5) The last sentence means:...  (a) It is impossible for a medical student to come across a case suffering from one of these... (b) Medical students are lucky not to see these diseases any more... (c) There is no need to study these diseases any more... (d) Some of diseases are so dangerous that even medical students should avoid studying them... (e) Nowadays a medical student may not have an opportunity to study some of these diseases during his training...

Answers A Little Down The Page

 
 
 

 Fascinating Vocabulary 

 MORE LOVE-BITES INTO DIFFICULT WORDS !! 

What kind/type of liar is that person ??

He/she is a chronic liar. = He/she never stops lying -- He/she does not lie occasionally or even frequently; just goes around lying all the time !!

He/she is a congenital liar. = His/her lying has had very early beginnings... It is as if he/she was born with that vice... One would not greatly exaggerate if one said he/she has been lying from the very moment of his/her moment of birth !!

He/she is a consummate liar. = No one else can lie as artistically or as convincingly as he/she does...  His/her skill in lying has reached the zenith of perfection...

He/she is an egregious liar. = All his/her lies are vicious -- calculatedly and cold-bloodedly so !! He/she specifically designs his/her lies to hurt and to do harm...

He/she is a glib liar. = Possessing a lively imagination and a ready tongue, he/she fabricates great lies or little fibs alike with great speed, fluency and smoothness... Ironically enough, it is this great ability makes him/her suspect: we may admire the nimble wit behind the quick answers, but we do not fail at the same time to notice that he/she is "always full of pretty answers"...

He/she is an inveterate liar. = Lying is a firmly-fixed and deeply-rooted habit with him/her... It is almost as reflexive it is for him/her as lighting a cigarette after sex...

He/she is an incorrigible liar. = His/her habitual lying accepts no correction... He/she just goes on and on lying despite any embarrassment or punishment he/she may have suffered in the past: There is just no reforming him/her...

He/she is a notorious liar. = He/she has managed to establish for himself/herself so solid and unsavory a reputation as an incorrigible liar that he/she can now fool only an unknowing stranger -- and even that, not for long !!

He/she is a psychopathic liar. = He/she cannot tell the difference between truth and falsehood, cannot distinguish fact from fantasy... He/she, in this particular respect at least, cannot be accepted as entirely sane.

He/she is an unconscionable liar. = He/she is totally unscrupulous, completely without a conscience... He/she never feels the slightest pain of guilt, no matter what harm his/her lies, fibs and fabrications may cause to his/her innocent victims...

 Answers For The Reading Comprehension Test :  1-c   2-b   3-d   4-c   5-e 

 
 
 Here Is An Advanced Level Vocabulary Test I have Prepared For You 

See If You Can Match The Word With The Meaning

(1)...chronic    (2)...congenital    (3)...consummate    (4)...egregious    (5)...glib    (6)...incorrigible    (7)...inveterate    (8)...notorious    (9)...psychopathic    (10)...unconscionable

( ) (a) long and firmly established, deeply-habituated, long-accustomed... obstinate or confirmed in a habit...

( ) (b) lacking a sense of the just and the righteous, lacking in conscientiousness... not caring about what is right or wrong...

( ) (c) widely/commonly known for some unpleasant or reprehensible quality, well-known in a bad way...

( ) (d) mentally or emotionally disturbed or not to be deemed quite normal...

( ) (e) happening at or during birth, existing from birth...

( ) (f) outstandingly bad, exceptionally evil-mongering...

( ) (g) quick, ready and smooth, but without depth or sincerity...

( ) (h) complete, perfect, highly skilled...

( ) (i) beyond reform, incapable of being corrected, improved upon or put right...

( ) (j) going or lasting for a long time...

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Study Suggestions Repeated for our New Members: Consult a good dictionary for any word you have doubts about -- for advanced learners I suggest an all-English dictionary and preferably one that offers extensive coverage of idioms and expressions for each entry and sample sentences as well... Write down your words in company with their dictionary definition, synonyms and antonyms, and a good number of the idioms and expressions it appears in, not forgetting the sample sentences... Try to memorize these sentences... Come back and have a look at the whole group from time to time - to refresh your memory and maybe to make a few additions...

Answers A Little Down The Page

You can always mail me, should you have any doubts lingering on your mind.

 
   

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 Test Results :  1-j   2-e   3-h   4-f   5-g   6-i   7-a   8-c   9-d   10-b 

 

 

READING FOR FUN

"SQUAWKS"

"Squawks" are problem listings that pilots generally leave for maintenance crews to fix before the next flight. Here are some squawks submitted by US Air Force pilots and the replies from the maintenance crews: (P)=PROBLEM (S)=SOLUTION

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(P) Left inside main tire almost needs replacement...
(S) Almost replaced left inside main tire...

(P) Test flight OK, except auto-land very rough...
(S) Auto-land not installed on this aircraft...

(P) #2 Propeller seeping prop fluid...
(S) #2 Propeller seepage normal - #1 #3 and #4 propellers lack normal seepage...

(P) Something loose in cockpit...
(S) Something tightened in cockpit...

(P) Evidence of leak on right main landing gear...
(S) Evidence removed...

(P) DME volume unbelievably loud...
(S) Volume set to more believable level...

(P) Dead bugs on windshield...
(S) Live bugs will appear soon...

(P) Autopilot in Altitude Hold Mode produces a 200 feet per minute descent...
(S) Cannot reproduce problem on ground...

(P) IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) inoperative...
(S) IFF always inoperative in OFF mode...

(P) Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick...
(S) That's what they're there for...

(P) Number three engine missing...
(S) Engine found on right wing after brief search...

(P) Aircraft handles funny...
(S) Aircraft warned to straighten up, "fly right" and be serious...

(P) Target Radar hums...
(S) Reprogrammed Target Radar with the lyrics...

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ANASAYFA  --  TESTLER  --  OKUMA  --  EĞLENCE

 

BU YAYINDA KULLANILAN FONETİK SİMGELERİ

æ = /a/ ve /e/ arası: cat /kæt/, black /blæk/, bad /bæd/, man /mæn/ ------  : /a/ ile /o/ arası... UK İngilizcesinde /o/ ya daha yakın; USA ingilizcesinde /a/ ya daha yakın: hot /ht/, fog /fg/, dock /dk/  -----  I : (Schwa) : İnternet ortamında /@/ veya başaşağı "e" ile temsil edenler var. İngilizce'de aşağı yukarı bütün ünlülerin vurgusuz hecelerde yuvarlandığı, orta damağın çeşitli yerlerinde oluşturulan seslik. Türkçe'de /ı/ ile /a/ arası bir ses. Hatta, "ğ" harfinin gırtlaksı olmadığı çoğu zaman bu sesi verdiğini söyleyebiliriz: ağlamak /a-ğı-lamak/  ------  Ø = thin /Øin/, thimble /Øim-bl/, thunder /Øan-dır/... "pelthek pelthek" konuşma...  ------ ð = this /ðis/, then /ðen/, those /ðouz/...  ses "telleri" titreşimsiz "Pelthek" kardeşin "badzi badzi" yürüyen titreşimli kardeşi...  -------- w "Dabılyu", /u/ nun katmerlisi. Hakkını veriyoruz. Dudaklar yuvarlak ve ileri uzatılmış. /v/ ile uzaktan yakından bir akrabalığı yok... /v/ sesi için konuşma organ ve boşlukları aynen /f/ sesi için olduğu gibidir ve /f/ sesinin titreşimli kardeşidir...  --------  N = "-ing"...  ---------  : İki nokta üstüste: önceki sesi uzat...  --------- /r/ BBC İngilizcesinde telaffuz edilmiyorsa, göstermiyoruz...

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