Doç. Dr. Yalçın İzbul

Hacettepe Üniversitesi eski öğr. üyesi

PRACTICAL ENGLISH FOR TURKS

A Free Bilingual Electronic Ezine

Issued Every Wednesday

05/15/02 - 0030

"There ain't a rule in the language what can't be broke," once wrote Jack Lynch, mine trusted fellow linguist, and he went on to say: "The one unbreakable rule: Whatever works works. All that's left for you is to figure out what works." The first thing to know, Dearest Members, is that the "spoken" and the "written" are two different languages -- for any given one "language"... Nobody speaks as they would write; and nobody writes as they would speak -- unless they are making an attempt to represent speech in writing.

It is a commonplace of contemporary linguistics that a linguist is interested in what IS actually said, and not in what some people (called grammarians) think what ought to be said... This is called descriptive linguistics and it sharply differs from the old prescriptive traditional grammar... All in all, I would suggest that your attitude should be: "So, that is how they say it" and try your best to reproduce the same in speech or writing. By and by, as you gain more mastery of the language, you'll be able to break away from the petty "rules" and use language as freely and creatively as it indeed should be used (as I've amply demonstrated here). Unfortunately, though, it is the "petty rules" that count on exam papers... izbul

 

DOMESTIC NEWS
TURKISH PM DELAYS RETURN TO WORK

The Miami Herald, online

Posted on Mon, May. 13, 2002

ANKARA, Turkland (AP) - Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit said Monday he would delay his return to work by several days as he recovers from an intestinal infection that caused him to be hospitalized.

recover = iyileşmek (sözcüğün diğer anlamları için sözlüğe danışınız)... intestinal infection = barsak enfeksiyonu...

Ecevit was discharged from hospital on May 5, a day after he was admitted, and had been expected to return to his office Monday after a week of recuperating at home. But in a written statement Monday, Ecevit said he would "continue to work at home for two or three days more."

discharged = taburcu edildi... (diğer anlamları için sözlüğe danışınız)... admit (burada) = hastaneye yatırma, hasta kabulü... to recuperate = nekahet devresi geçirmek, sağlık ve gücünü yeniden kazanmak...

Ecevit said his health was rapidly improving, and he had decided to stay at home to ensure a full recovery.

to ensure = gerçekleşmesini sağlamak, sağlama almak... a full recovery = tam iyileşme...

The premier's hospitalization had sparked fears that Ecevit could be forced to retire early due to ill health, although doctors said his intestinal infection was not serious. Ecevit, 76, has appeared frail in recent years.

sparked fears = korkuları kıvılcımlandırdı... to retire early = "ERKEN, VAKTİNDEN ÖNCE" emekli olmak... ill health = sağlığın bozuk olması... appeared frail = zayıf, güçsüz görünüyordu...

Ecevit's departure could undermine Turkland's three-party coalition government, and force early elections that would disrupt an austerity program designed to overcome last year's deep economic crisis.

to undermine = zayıflatmak, ayağını kaydırmak, gücünü yitirmesine neden olmak, zor durumda bırakmak... force early elections = erken sdeçimi zorunlu kılmak... to disrupt = kesintiye uğratmak, bozmak... austerity program = kemer sıkma programı... to overcome = yenmak, üstesinden gelmek...

*  *  *  *  *

 

ECONOMY AND FINANCE
TURKLAND AND GREECE TO BOOST ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION

Ministers say joint Turco-Greek projects could attract the support of the European Investment Bank

from The NTVMSNBC, online

May 10- The continuing improvement in relations between Turkland and Greece took another step forward on Thursday, with the economy ministers of the two countries agreeing to boost co-operation in regional transport and energy projects.

another step forward = bir adım daha attı... to boost = canlandırmak, hızla arttırmak...

Together with Italy, Turkland and Greece can develop energy and transport infrastructure to benefit both themselves and the region, according to Kemal Derviş, the Turkish State Minister Responsible for the Economy, and his Greek counterpart Nikos Christodoulakis.

infrastructure = altyapı... counterpart = karşı tarafta aynı konumda olan kişi, meslektaş, mümasil...

Speaking at a joint press conference on Thursday, the two ministers talked about the potential of co-operation. Turkland and Greece have already agreed to a project to extend an Iranian natural gas pipeline from Turkland into Greece, at a cost of $300 million. The pipeline could be extended further to Italy, opening up the opportunity to export Iranian natural gas directly to the West. Both Turkland and Greece would benefit from earning transit fees as well as increasing their own access to energy.

joint press conference = ortak basın toplantısı... access to energy = enerjiye ulaşım...

Working together with Greece and Italy will help Turkland “enter the European market ... both as buyers and sellers,” Derviş said. “I think this will bring increased efficiency of energy use in both our countries... When the neighbourhood is good, it benefits everyone who lives there,” the minister added.

According to Christodoulakis, the European Union's financial agency, the European Investment Bank, could provide funds to develop joint energy and transport projects between Greece and Turkland.

the European Investment Bank = Avrupa Yatırım Bankası...

 
CHUNKS OF WISDOM OR DROPLETS OF BANALITY ?

SAGES ON LOVE AND MARRIAGE

Sage [seyc] = Bilge

Fifty percent of all marriages end in divorce. But look at the brighter side: the other fifty percent end in death. -- Richard JENI

Evliliklerin yüzde ellisi boşanmayla bitiyor. Ama siz olayın iyimser (= daha parlak) yönüne bakın: Geriye kalan yüzde ellisi ölümle sonlanıyor...

By all means marry; if you get a good wife, you'll be happy. If you get a bad one, you'll become a philosopher. -- SOCRATES

by all means = hayhay, gayet tabii, herzaman ve her koşulda evet...

You can rehearse a wedding but not a marriage. - Al BATT

Düğünün provası olur, ama evliliğin provası yoktur...

Pure love and suspicion cannot dwell together: at the door where the latter enters, the former makes its exit. -- Alexandre DUMAS

pure love = saf, katışıksız aşk... suspicion = şüphe, kuşku... dwell together = birlikte oturmak; burada: birarada bulunmak... the latter = sonraki, ikincisi... the former = ilki, birincisi...

Christianity has done a great deal for love by making a sin of it. -- Anatole FRANCE

has done a great deal for = çok yararına olmuştur, onun için çok şey yapmıştır... by making a sin of it = onu bir günah haline getirerek... Doğru: Yasak meyve tatlı olur...

Of all forms of caution, caution in love is perhaps the most fatal to true happiness. -- Bertrand RUSSELL

caution = temkin, kendini sakınma... Doğru: Daldın mı, balıklama dalacaksın...

To love at all is to be vulnerable. -- C.S. LEWIS

at all = genelde "hiç, hiç de" şeklinde çeviri veren bu deyim, burada "herhangi bir şekilde, her türlü şekilde" diye çevrilebilir... "Sevmek, kolay yaralanabilir olmak demektir"...

"Men always want to be a woman's first love - women like to be a man's last romance." -- Oscar WILDE

Burada "love" sözcüğünü "aşık", romance sözcüğünü "aşk" olarak çeviriniz... "Erkekler bir kadının ilk aşıkı, kadınlarsa bir erkeğin son aşkı olmak ister"...

There's only one way to have a happy marriage and as soon as I learn what it is I'll get married again. -- Clint EASTWOOD

Nasıl konuşmuş ama Clint Abim? "Mutlu bir evliliğin tek yolu var; Ne olduğunu öğrenir öğrenmez, yeniden evleneceğim!!"

Behind every successful man is a surprised woman. -- Maryon PEARSON

Çok zalim, çoook zalim: Her başarılı erkeğin arkasında, buna çok şaşıran bir kadın vardır!..

 

 

 

FOREIGN NEWS
JOSEPH 'JOE BANANAS' BONANNO, NOTORIOUS MAFIA LEADER, DIES AT 97

Tucson, Arizona - The Associated Press

(Slightly modified for linguistic purposes)

Joseph Bonanno, the notorious gangster known as "Joe Bananas" who ran one of the most powerful Mafia groups in the 1950s and '60s, has died. He was 97.

Bonanno, who retired to Arizona in 1968 and had suffered from a variety of health problems in recent years, died on Saturday of heart failure, said his attorney, Alfred "Skip" Donau.

attorney = avukat... vekil, dava vekili...

At the height of his power, Bonanno directed one of the five original crime families in New York City. The public knew him as "Joe Bananas" -- a nickname he detested.

a nickname he detested = nefret ve tiksinti duyduğu bir lakab...

By his own admission, he was a member of "the Commission," which acted as an organized crime board of directors in New York and other major U.S. cities. He denied engaging in such "unmanly" activities as narcotics trafficking or prostitution, though authorities said otherwise.

by his own admission = kendi itirafıyla... denied engaging in = katıldığını, bulaştığını red ve inkar ediyordu... unmanly = erkekliğe, delikanlılığa yakışmaz... prostitution = fahişelik... said otherwise = tersini söylüyorlardı...

Bonanno fell from grace during the 1960s, reputedly for trying to become the boss of bosses in what came to be known as "the Banana War." The battle among the crime families resulted in his eventual exile to Tucson.

fell from grace = gözden düştü, popülaritesini yitirdi... reputedly = iddia edildiğine göre... eventual = sonundaki, nihai... exile [eg-zail] = sürgün... Tucson = Okunuşu /tü-san/...

His crime family still bears his name, though he maintained in his 1983 autobiography that "I'm not a Father anymore and there is no Bonanno Family anymore."

bears his name = adını taşıyor... maintain (Burada) = iddia atmek, savunmak...

 

Even in his waning years, Bonanno was unable to avoid the attention of prosecutors. In 1980 they succeeded in getting the only felony conviction against him, for obstruction of justice for trying to block a federal grand jury investigating his sons.

waning = fizik gücünü veya etkisini yitirme, zayıf düşme... prosecutor = savcılar... felony = cinayet, cürüm, ağır suç... conviction = suçlu bulunma, hüküm giyme... obstruction of justice = adaletin engellenmesi...

A federal judge eventually reduced his five-year sentence to a year and Bonanno served nearly eight months in a Lexington, Kentucky, federal prison before being paroled in July 1984.

served = hapis yattı... parole = şartlı tahliye etmek...

In 1985 and '86, he served 14 months in prison for contempt of court. He had refused to answer prosecutors' questions prior to a planned trial of reputed leaders of New York's organized crime families.

contempt of court = mahkemeye hakaret...

The judge and prosecutors -- including then-U.S. Attorney Rudolph Giuliani -- had traveled to Tucson to take his testimony, but Bonanno claimed ill health in refusing to testify.

testimony = ifade... claimed ill health = sağlığının bozuk olduğunu ileri sürdü...

Bonanno was born Jan. 18, 1905, in Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily. He entered the United States illegally through Cuba, setting up his operations in New York City.

He was arrested numerous times, including once in the 1930s when he was accused of transporting guns for mob boss Al Capone... Through his crime family, established in the early 1930s, Bonanno rose to become a member of "The Commission."

numerous times = pekçok kereler...

The "Banana War" ran roughly from 1964 to 1969, and started after Bonanno reportedly plotted to assassinate several other family bosses, including Carlo Gambino and Thomas Lucchese.

roughly = kabaca, aşağı yukarı... reportedly = bildirildiğine göre, öne sürüldüğüne göre... to plot = komplo kurmak, plan yapmak... to assassinate = süikast düzenleyerek öldürmek...

   
 
 ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT 

*  *  *  *  *

 MEHMET AYDOĞDU'S WORKS 

 EXHIBITED IN İZMİR 

Mehmet Aydoğdu is exhibiting his latest paintings at the Başak Insurance Art Gallery, İzmir. Born in 1958 in Karaman. he now lives in Liege, Belgium. Over 40 paintings are on display, executed with a variety of techniques. The exhibition will be open until May 30.

*  *  *  *  *

 TURKISH PAINTING: AN OVERVIEW 

Turkish painting in the western sense only began in the 19th century, with the founding by Osman Hamdi Bey, himself an accomplished painter, of the Academy of Fine Arts. Turkish painters were sent to France and Italy by the Sultan, and foreign painters, mostly Italian, were brought from Europe to transfer their skills. Today this academy is known as Mimar Sinan University School of Fine Arts...

in the western sense = Batı anlamında... with the founding of = kurulması ile... accomplished = usta, dört dörtlük... Fine Arts = Güzel Sanatlar...

In 1919 the Ottoman Society of Painters held their first exhibition in Galatasaray, İstanbul. Following the WW1, impressionism was a major influence on Turkish painters. Painting continued to develop through the thirties and forties, with increased emphasis on design and subject matter. The abstract and cubist movements were popular in Turkey. [In fact, the earliest examples of such patronage go back to the 15th century, when the great Italian painter Bellini was invited to İstanbul by Mehmet the Conqueror, who saw himself as the heir to the now-defunct Byzantine Empire...]

WW1 = World War One... abstract = soyut... (Bir başka anlamı ise, özet, özümlenerek çıkarılmış öz...) patronage = sanat koruyucu ve destekçi... heir = mirasçı... defunct = kaput!!... Büyük Fatih'in yüzü Batı'ya dönük bir padişah olduğu gerçeğini tartışmak isteyen varsa, lütfen fikirlerini bana İngilizce olarak yazsın: Buradan Yayınlayayım!

Today's Turkish artists are no longer bound in subject or design by their past, and a wide range of techniques and approaches are being used by the many artists at work today. There are numerous art galleries, with the works of masters and young talents on permanent or temporary display.

no longer bound = artık bağlı/bağımlı değil... a wide range of = çok geniş bir yelpazede... approach = yaklaşım... numerous = çok sayıda... young talents = genç yetenekler... on display = gösterimde, sergileniyor...

 
 
ADVANCED LEVEL READING
IS HELL EXOTHERMIC OR ENDOTHERMIC ??

Açıklama: exothermic = gives off heat and endothermic = absorbs heat

The following is an actual question given on University of Washington chemistry mid-term: Is Hell exothermic or endothermic?

Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle's Law (i.e. gas cools off when it expands and heats up when it is compressed) or some variant.

expand = genişlemek... be compressed = sıkışmak...

One student, however, wrote the following:

First, we need to know how the mass of Hell is changing in time. So we need to know the rate that souls are moving into Hell and the rate they are leaving.

I think that we can safely assume that once a soul gets to Hell, it will not leave. Therefore, no souls are leaving.

As for how many souls are entering Hell, let's look at the different religions that exist in the world today. All religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, you will go to Hell.

Since there are more than one of these religions and since people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all souls go to Hell.

With birth and death rates as they are we can expect the number of souls in Hell to increase exponentially.

increase exponentially = geometric olarak artmak...

 

Now, we look at the rate of change of the volume in Hell because Boyle's Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in Hell to stay the same, the volume of Hell has to expand proportionately as souls are added.

proportionately = oransal olarak...

This gives two possibilities:

1. If Hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter Hell, then the temperature and pressure in Hell will increase until all Hell breaks loose.

until all Hell breaks loose = (sözcük oyunu) Cehennem zıvanadan çıkacak, altüst olacak...

2. Of course, if Hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in Hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until Hell freezes over.

So which is it? If we accept the postulate given to me by Ms. Teresa Banyan during my freshman year,

postulate = postülat, temel kabul... my freshman year = üniversitedeki ilk yılım...

"...that it will be a cold day in Hell before I sleep with you."

"Çıkmaz ayın Çarşambasında yatarım ancak seninle!!"

And take into account the fact that I still have not succeeded in having sexual relations with her,

then, #2 cannot be true, and thus I am sure that Hell is not exothermic and will not freeze.

The student received the only "A"

   

THIS WEEK'S CARTOON

by Andy SINGER

Privatization of Fire Department !!

İtfaiyede Özelleştirme

Açıklama: Değerli Okuyucular, Özelleştirmeye İlişkin Görüşümü yansıttığı İçin Değil, Espirisini Beğendiğim İçin Yayınlıyorum.

   
   
CLEAN JOKES OF THE DAY
COMPLETE WITH A BROOM

A woman was waiting in the checkout line at a shopping center. Her arms were heavily laden with a mop and broom and other cleaning supplies.

checkout line = kasa önünde kuyruk... heavily laden with = ağır yüklü, tepeleme dolu (to load, fiilinin sıfat olarak kullanılan eski past participle biçimi)... mop = temizlik paspası ("vileda" tipi)... broom = uzun saplı süpürge, çalı süpürgesi (cadıların kullandığı türden)... cleaning supplies = temizlik malzemesi...

By her actions and deep sighs, it was obvious she was in a hurry and not happy about the slowness of the line.
When the cashier called for a price check on a box of soap, the woman remarked indignantly, "Well, I'll be lucky to get out of here and home before Christmas!"

deep sighs = derin iç çekmeler... called for a price check = bir fiatı kontrol etmeleri için görevli arkadaşına seslendi... indignantly = öfkeyle, sabrı taşmış olarak, artık dayanamayarak...

"Don't worry, ma'am," replied the clerk. "With that wind kicking up out there and that brand new broom you have here, you'll be home in no time."

wind kicking up out there = dışarda kuvvetle esen, kuvvetlenen rüzgar...

 

THROUGH THE MAGNIFYING GLASS

A man and his wife were making their first doctor visit prior to the birth of their first child. After everything checked out, the doctor took a small stamp and stamped the wife's stomach with indelible ink.

magnifying glass = büyüteç... prior to = before... stamp = damga... to stamp = damgalamak, damga basmak... indelible ink = silinmez mürekkep, çıkmaz mürekkep...

The couple was curious about what the stamp was for so when they got home, he dug out his magnifying glass to try to see what it was.

couple was = sözkonusu iki kişi olmasına karşın, "çift" kavramını tekil görüyoruz... curious = merak ediyor, meraklı, meraki... dug out = araştırıp buldu, "kazarak çıkardı" kavramından... [dig - dug - dug] [digged - olanaklı]

In very tiny letters the stamp said, "When you can read this without a magnifying glass, come back and see me."

tiny [tay-ni] = minicik...

*  *  *  *  *

 
NAUGHTY JOKE OF THE DAY
THE BANK PRESIDENT'S BALLS !!

A little old lady went into the Bank of Canada one day, carrying a bag of money. She insisted that she must speak with the president of the bank to open a savings account because, "It's a lot of money!"

The bank president asked her how much she would like to deposit. She replied, "$165,000!" and threw the cash out of her bag onto his desk. The president was of course curious as to the source of all this cash, so he asked her, "Ma'am, I'm surprised you're carrying so much cash around. Where did you get this money?"

The old lady replied, "I make bets." The president then asked, 'Bets? What kind of bets? " The old woman said, "Well, for example, I'll bet you $25,000 that your balls are square."

bet = bahis... balls = (slang) taş*k(lar)...

"Ha!" laughed the president, "That's a stupid bet. You can never win that kind of bet!" The old lady challenged, "So, would you like to take my bet?" "Sure," said the president, "I'll bet $25,000 that my balls are not square!"

The little old lady then said, "Okay, but since there is a lot of money involved, may I bring my lawyer with me tomorrow at 10:00AM as a witness?" "Sure!" replied the confident president.

there is a lot of money involved = işin içinde çok para var... witness = tanık...

The next morning, at precisely 10:00 am, the little old lady appeared with her lawyer at the president's office. She introduced the lawyer to the president and asked him to drop his pants so they could all see.

drop his pants = pantolonunu indirmek... (UK: külot)...

The president complied. The little old lady peered closely at his balls and then asked if she could feel them." Well, Okay," said the president, "$25,000 is a lot of money, so I guess you should be absolutely sure."

peered closely = gözleriyle yakından inceledi... feel = (burada) ellemek, elleriyle dokunmak...

Just then, he noticed that the lawyer was quietly banging his head against the wall. The president asked the old lady, "What the hell's the matter with your lawyer?" She replied, "Nothing, except I bet him $100,000 that at 10:00 AM today, I'd have The Bank of Canada's president's balls in my hand."

banging his head against the wall = kafasını duvara vuruyordu... "bet" fiilinin past ve past participle biçimlerinin de aynı olduğuna dikkat ediniz...

 

 READING FOR FUN 

 SIGNS AROUND THE WORLD 

Bu bölümde sıraladığım "komik" sözlerden, dil açısından alınacak önemli dersler var. Bunları kaçırmayın. Örneğin ilk tümceden alınacak ders: Yazdığınız her tümceyi başkaları da sizinle aynı tonda okuyacak sanmayın.

In a New York restaurant:
Customers who find our waitresses rude ought to see the manager  (Kinayeli ses tonuyla okuduğunuzda: Garson kızların kabalığından şikayetçi olanlar, [hele bir de] patronu görsünler!..)

In a Florida maternity ward:
No children allowed  (maternity ward = hastanede doğum servisi...)

In an Oregon general store:
Why go elsewhere to be cheated, when you can come here?  (to be cheated = aldatılmak, dolandırılmak...)

In a Norwegian cocktail lounge:
Ladies are requested not to have children in the bar  (Çocuklarını yanlarında getirmesinler, demek istemişler... Ama, to have children = çocuk doğurmak, çocuk sahibi olmak...)

In a Budapest zoo:
Please do not feed the animals. If you have any suitable food,
give it to the guard on duty

In a Roman doctor's office:
Specialist in women and other diseases  (Roman = Roma'lı... Kadın ve diğer hastalıklar uzmanı...

In an Acapulco hotel:
Manager has personally passed all the water served here  (to pass water = çişini yapmak... Herhalde, otelimizde sunulan suları bizzat müdürümüz testen geçirmektedir, demek istemişlerdi...)

In a dress shop window:
Don't stand outside and faint - come in and have a fit 
(to faint = bayılmak... to have a fit = üstünüze uyan bir giysi alın, demek istemişler, ama, 1. tepesinin tası atmak, öfkeden çıldırmak; 2. (genellikle sara) nöbet geçirmek... Ama, bu yazıyı bilerek, ilgi çekmek için yazdıkları belli...

Sign in a London department store:
Bargain basement upstairs 
(zemin katı üst kata nasıl çıkardılar acaba?)

Sign outside Wessex Hall at Reading University:
"We sex all" 
(şakacı öğrenciler iki harfi silince...) [Bu arada, sözü geçen kent -- İngiltere'de -- adının okunuşu: /re-diN/ şeklindedir.]

Modified from several sources on the Net...

 

         

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