READING PASSAGES - 08

Intermediate to Advanced

İngilizce Derslere Eşlik Eden Türkçe Açıklamalı İngilizce Okuma Parçaları

 

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FOREIGN PRESS
ECEVİT DEFIES PRESSURE TO GO

from the BBC -- Europe, Tuesday, 9 July, 2002

Turkland's ailing Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit has appointed new ministers after a string of resignations from cabinet and party colleagues demanding early elections.

ailing = hasta, düşkün, sağlığı giderek bozulmakta olan... a string of = bir dizi... to resign /ri-ZAYN/ = istifa etmek... to re-sign /Rİ:-sayn/ = yeniden imzalamak... (Bu iki fiil birbiri ile ilişkisiz -- hece vurgusunun önemini örneklemek için birlikte gösteriyorum)...

But he is refusing calls to step down. Opposition leader Tansu Çiller said he had told her on Tuesday that he "had not yet come to the point of resignation".

call = çağrı... to step down = görevi bırakmak ("yüksek bir yerden aşağı inmek" kavramından)...

Four senior government officials, including one of the deputy prime ministers -- Mr Ecevit's key ally Hüsamettin Özkan -- have abandoned both the prime minister and his Democratic Left Party (DSP).

ally /Æ-lai/ = müttefik... alliance /ı-LAİ-ıns/ = ittifak...

Another deputy prime minister, Mesut Yılmaz, has called for a new Turkish government, while the leader of the far-right Nationalist Action Party (MHP) -- a member of Mr Ecevit's three-party coalition -- called on Sunday for early elections.

A total of 26 MPs have departed since Monday, causing the DSP to lose its status as the largest party both in parliament and the fragile coalition.

fragile GB, /FRÆ-cayl/; US, /FRÆ-cil/ = kırılgan...

The BBC's Jonny Dymond in İstanbul says that it seems unavoidable that elections will be brought forward. But it remains wholly unclear what kind of political set-up a national poll would produce.

unavoidable = kaçınılmaz, sakınılamaz... be brought forward = erken bir tarihe çekilmek... it remains unclear = belirsiz olmakta devam ediyor... set-up = (burada) durum, yapı, kurulum; (to set up = kurmak, tesis etmek fiilinden)... poll = seçim, seçim sandığı...

Current opinion polls suggest that, were elections held now, the principal winner would be the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party - which would almost certainly upset the army-led secularist elite of the mainly Muslim country.

opinion poll = kamuoyu araştırması... were elections held now = (devrik yapıya dikkat) = if elections were held now... to upset = (burada) rahatsız etmek (ayrıca, üzmek, altüst etmek, düzenini bozmak gibi kavramları vardır)... secular = laik... secularist = laiklik taraftarı...

The United States is said to be monitoring the situation "with interest". As the only Muslim-majority member of Nato, Turkland's political and economic stability are important to a variety of US interests abroad - including the Middle East, Afghanistan and Iraq.

to monitor = izlemek, gözlemek (to watch veya observe fiillerinden nüans farkına dikkat ediniz)... political and economic stability ARE = "Is" yerine "Are" kullanımı, muhabirin burada siyasi ve ekonomik stabiliteyi iki farklı ve ayrık nitelikli kavram şeklinde kavramlaştırdığını gösteriyor...

Correspondents say the departed deputy Mr Özkan, once seen as a likely successor to Mr Ecevit, played a vital role in keeping the shaky coalition together. He acted as a mediator, resolving disputes over economic reforms with other parties.

correspondents = muhabirler (to correspond; kendileriyle haberleştiğimiz, "muhaberede" bulunduğumuz kimseler kavramından)... departed = V3 biçimi (past participle) sıfat olarak kullanılıyor = ayrılmış olan... to succeed = 1. başarmak; 2. yerine geçmek, "halef" olmak... successor = halef, yerine geçen... successive storms = ardarda gelen fırtınalar... (Halef - selef kavramlarını ayırmakta güçlük çekiyorsanız, "halife" kavramını düşününüz)... shaky = to shake, fiilinden... to resolve disputes = anlaşmazlıkları çözmek...

Markets are worried that a new government will not stick to the programme hammered out with the International Monetary Fund in return for a massive $16bn loan agreed earlier this year.

markets = piyasalar... stick to = sadık kalmak, sürdürmek (to stick = yapışmak, yapıştırmak fiilinden)... hammered out = şekillendirilmiş (demirin dövülerek şekillendirilmesi kavramından)... in return for = karşılığında...

Ministers have also been in a rush to pass the reforms needed to start membership negotiations with the European Union. The end of the year is the effective deadline.

in a rush = acele ediyor olmak... membership negotiations = üyelik müzakereleri... deadline = son tarih...

But with early elections looking like a necessity, there will be no legislative progress for months, which is likely to unsettle the business community still further, and jeopardize the country's bid to start talks with Brussels.

unsettle = dengesini/asabını bozmak... still further = daha da ileri boyutlarda... to jeopardize = to endanger, to imperil = tehlikeye atmak, riske sokmak... bid = (burada) istek, talep, girişim...

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NATIONAL PRESS
A PAINFUL CHANGE OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

ADVANCED READING: Turkish Daily News'dan Sayın Burak BEKDİL'in her bakımdan dörtdörtlük bu yazısını buraya aynen alıyorum.

In Ankara, nowadays, two hours is a long time in politics. In what looks like a high drama of power struggle, things change in the Turkish capital at a shocking speed. The bickering could be just the beginning of a historic reshuffle in Turkish politics.

bickering = çekişme, alıp verememe... reshuffle = "safların yeniden oluşması" anlamında (yerlerini/sırasını yeniden düzenlemek, iskanbil kağıtlarını karmak/karıştırmak, gibi kavramlardan)...

Not only political news is bizarre in this country. Take this one, for example, "two cars crash; two dead, nine injured."? No, not a mistake, just 11 people in two speeding cars... Welcome to Turkland! Or, how about this one? "Train crashes with motorbike; four dead." !!!! Think twice before rushing to the easiest explanation that the death toll must have been mis-stated. Be realistic. What's wrong if four people rode on a motorbike and attempted to cross the track but unfortunately did not notice the approaching cargo train?

death toll = ölü sayısı...

Oh, don't forget to go and see this hospital in İstanbul whose patient rooms are overlooking a cemetery. It must be a unique idea. By the way, guess where was the illegal immigrant who was found folded in his girlfriend's suitcase while she was embarking on an Italian port from? Need we tell?

to overlook a cemetery = mezarlığa bakmak, mezarlık görmek (manzara olarak)... folded = katlanmış, kıvrılmış... "where ...from" yapısına dikkat...

In a country where "prime minister goes to his office" is "flash news" few things should surprise anyone. Poor agency reporters, it must take a certain skill to explain all this zigzagging of one man in a 60-character headline: "Democratic Left Party Deputy who had defected to the new movement but later joined his party resigns again!" Or did it really surprise anyone when former premier and opposition leader Tansu Çiller said she must be Turkland's prime minister when the U.S. launches a strike against Iraq?

to defect = terketmek, karşı tarafa geçmek... Ad durumu aşağıda geçiyor: defection...

Despite all the parody, however, there is some humourless activity in Ankara. Winston Churchill once said two weeks is a long time in politics. In Ankara, nowadays, two hours is a long time in politics. In what looks like a high drama of power struggle, things change in the Turkish capital at a shocking speed. The bickering could be just the beginning of a historic reshuffle in Turkish politics.

Ten days ago Turkland had a sick prime minister who was too stubborn to quit. After a wave of defections from his party, Turkland has a sick prime minister, a disintegrating government, but prospects for radical change in leadership. A "troika" bent on liberal economic reforms and bringing Turkland, a distant EU candidate, closer to Brussels, is claiming leadership from the old guard.

too stubborn to quit = terketmeyecek kadar inatçı... troika = üçlü, üçlü yönetim... bent on = kesin kararlı; bütün dikkat ve enerjisini o yöne vermiş...

Call it the Dream Team of White Turks, or the Three Musketeers, or Turkland's Third Way, Hüsamettin Özkan, widely known as Mr. Glue for his extraordinary ability to keep together an otherwise hostile bunch of politicians, quite quickly glued the Cabinet's two most popular figures into his grouping: İsmail "Mr. Charisma" Cem and Kemal "The Messiah" Derviş.

the Three Musketeers = Üç Silahşörler... otherwise = başka bakımlardan... Messiah = Mesih, Kurtarıcı...

Mr. Cem, the leader of the most exciting and market-friendly grouping expects a comfortable lead over their rivals if Turkland went to the ballot boxes at the earliest convenience. That may be difficult though.

a comfortable lead over their rivals = rakiplerine göre rahat/büyük bir marjla...

To support his optimism, however, Mr. Cem cites a public opinion poll on the web site of a mainstream newspaper. But he should be able to understand that the readers of a web paper may differ in political opinion from 35 million Turkish voters. In statistics, the kind of conclusion Mr. Cem has reached is called "insignificant due to bad sampling." This is like a poll putting Mrs. Çiller in power with a 60 percent voter support. Only that the poll had been carried out at, errr, her party's headquarters...

a mainstream newspaper = "tarafsız", radikal olmaktan uzak, sessiz çoğunluğu temsil eden, yaygın satılan gazete... bad sampling = yanlış/kötü örnekleme dayalı... "errr" = şeyyy...

True, mainstream media support and Mr. Derviş alone may bring in as much as 10 percent of votes nationwide, but it is too early to guess victory or defeat.

Before talking polls, to win an election vote in parliament may be more difficult than expected even if coalition is stripped of its ruling majority -- any time soon. The troika may agree to support a minority government if the government's nationalist wing, the only political party, along with Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Justice and Development, which genuinely can afford polls, agreed for the plan.

ruling majority = iktidar çoğunluğu...

Turkland's next polls, unlike previous ones, will not see a clash of ideologies, but a clash of conservatists and liberals from both directions of the political spectrum. The ideal post-election scenario for the liberals is to make alliance between the troika, the Motherland and other social democrat splinters if they pass the national threshold, leaving the opposition seats to Islamist and nationalist elements. Although it is too early to guess, this is a no-nonsense plan.

"conservatists" = Sayın Bekdil'in dörtdörtlük İngilizce'sine saygı gösteriyor ve bir "neologism" kabul ederek aynen bırakıyorum. Ancak, doğru sözcüğün "conservatives" sayılmak gerektiğini belirtmek isterim...

Once again, "all options are open" in Turkish politics. But one thing is clear: all the painful episode is forcing the country into change in political leadership.

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NOT: "Islam/Islamist" sözcüklerini, İngilizce yazılış sayarak, olduğu gibi bıraktım. Ancak "İstanbul" dahil, bütün Türkçe sözcüklerde Türk klavyesini kullanmaya özen gösterdiğimi okuyucularımız hatırlayacaklardır... Bu uygulamama karşı çıkanlar, acaba "Mr. Djem" yazmayı mı, yoksa "Mr. Kem" okutmayı mı planlıyorlar?

FOREIGN PRESS
SWIMSUITS FOR DEVOUT MUSLIMS HIT TURKISH BEACHES

NOT: Bu haftaki ilginç okuma parçası seçimimde, aşağıdaki yazıda sözü edilen Hafize Hn.'ın soyadının hiçbir etkisi yoktur...

from The Associated Press, August 17, 2002

İSTANBUL, Turkland (AP) -- Hafize Erdoğan, a devout Muslim, proudly sports her new blue swimsuit -- a full-body outfit that covers her arms down to her wrists, her legs to her ankles and even much of her head.

swimsuit = mayo... (DİKKAT: "suit": okunuşu /SU:T/, yani uzun /u:/ ile)... devout /di-VAUT/ = dindar, kendijni dine vermiş (Başka alanlarda da "kendini adamış taraftar" anlamında kullanılabilir)... to sport = gösterişli şekilde giymek; giymiş, üzerinde olmak... outfit = aksesuarları ile birlikte giyim, giysi (Özellikle de belli bir amaç veya olay için giyilen)... to cover = kaplamak, örtmek... wrist /RİST/ = kol bileği... ankle /ÆNK-ıl/ = ayak bileği...

The 30-year-old mother of two said she bought the suit so she could swim with her family while also observing religious rules about modesty.

mother of two = iki çocuk annesi... to observe = (burada) kurallara "riayet" etmek... modesty = 1. alçakgönüllülük, tevazu; 2. (burada) giysi, davranış veya konuşmada kurallara uyma (dolayısıyla, "tesettür" kastediliyor)...

"I used to have to stand by and watch my family in the water," Erdoğan said at Kilyos Beach on the outskirts of İstanbul. "I would watch my kids like a cat looks at liver ... But now I can swim, too."

stand by = kenarda durmak... (Diğer bir anlamı ise, "yardıma hazır şekilde yanında durmak")... outskirts = dış mahalleler, varoşlar (ancak İngilizce'de bizdeki "varoş" nüanslarını aramayın)... watch like a cat looks at liver = Bildiğim kadarıyla, İngilizce'de böyle bir deyim yok: Türkçe'den çevirip, dile armağan etmişler...

Erdoğan is evidence of a growing trend in Turkland, where devoutly religious consumers are looking to combine their beliefs with Western pastimes.

pastime = hobi, hoşça zaman geçirten uğraş...

"Islamic circles have traditionally understood beaches as something sinful," said Murat Cemrek, who teaches sociology at Ankara's Bilkent University. "But Islamic circles have become modernized. They've got money. They want to go to the beach and keep their Islamic values."

sinful = günah (olan şey)... sinner = günahkar (insan)... Son tümceye bir "too" eklense, daha şık bir tümce olurdu...

Bathing suits are only part of Turkland's flourishing Islamic market. There are also Islamic camping sites, spas and beach resorts that segregate men and women. Caprice Hotel on the Aegean Sea coast, for example, advertises "a modern vacation complex ... where the sound of prayer is heard five times a day."

only part of = yalnızca bir bölümü ("only one part of" daha iyi oluırdu)... to flourish = hızla gelişmek, büyük canlılık göstermek... to segregate = (fiziki anlamda) ayırmak, ayrı yerlerde tutmak; burada "kaç göç"... sound of prayer = "ezan" kastediliyor... Otelin adı nasıl ama: Hotel Caprice...

Erdoğan's $25 bathing suit includes a headscarf, a long-armed top and full-length pants. It fits loosely so as not to show off the outlines of her body and is made of a synthetic material that dries quickly. It features a design that looks like denim dotted with yellow shooting stars.

scarf = "eşarp"... "başörtüsü" karşılığında "headscarf" kullanılıyor; çünkü "turban" deselerdi, Hint "türbanı" anlaşılacaktı... fits loosely = vücudu sarmıyor, vücuda oturmuyor... so as not to = ...mamak için... denim = bir cins pamuklu kumaş...

With all that fabric, the suits still aren't perfect for swimming. "Water gets inside and it sticks to you," Erdoğan said. "But I don't have any other choice."

fabric = kumaş...

In the past, religious women in Turkland either didn't go to the beach or wore regular street clothing into the water. Most women at beaches in secular Turkland wear Western-style bathing suits.

The top company producing Islamic bathing suits, Haşema, says it sold 25,000 bathing suits last year and can't produce them quick enough to keep pace with demand. The company exports to Egypt, North America, England, and Australia.

to keep pace with = ayak uydurmak, aynı hızda yol almak, geri kalmamak... supply & demand = arz ve talep...

Mehmet Şahin said he founded Haşema (pronounced Ha-shay-ma), because of his own problems on the beach as a university student.

Thirteen years ago, there was no company that made men's swimming trunks that extended from the bellybutton to the knees according to Islamic precepts, Şahin said.

bellybutton = göbek... precept = kural, ilke, amir hüküm...

"We used to have to cut off long pants. But we didn't find that very aesthetic," the bearded businessman said. "We developed the company according to our own needs ... but we found a place in the market."

bearded = sakallı...

The company expanded to include women's suits, now the company's top seller. Haşema's glossy catalogue shows more than a half-dozen different colours and floral patterns.

glossy = parıltılı, (belki de ucuz ve zevksiz ama) şaşaalı... floral patterns = çiçekli desenler...

Şükür Dölek, who sells the suits in Ankara, Turkland's capital, said his customers are well-off and religious. Most are professionals or university students. "Demand for the suits keeps growing. We can't keep enough in stock," Dölek said.

well-off and religious = varlıklı ve dindar...

Dölek said some of his customers are secular Turkish women, who apparently take off the removable Islamic headscarves and wear the suits because they're embarrassed to show their bodies on the beach.

secular = laik... (Helal olsun walla -- yabancı muhabirlere de öğretmişiz bizi dindarlar ve laikler diye bölmeyi!!...) apparently = "öyle anlaşılıyor ki" yada "görünüşe bakılırsa, görüldüğü kadarıyla" şeklinde çeviriniz... removable = takılıp çıkarılabilir...

 to be embarrassed = utanmak, zor durumda kalmak... (Burada, vücut hatlarının şekilsizliğini saklamak isteyen "laik" hanımların da bu "mayo" lardan satın aldıkları, ama başörtüsü kısmını takmadıkları anlatılıyor)

"Bathing suits don't have a religion," Dölek said. "Just like some women want to wear bikinis, others want to wear Haşema ... whatever the reasons may be."

"Bathing suits don't have a religion" -- "Paranın dini olmaz" diye bilirdik, meğer mayoların da öyleymiş...

The company, meanwhile, is still working on new products for eager beachgoers. "We're even trying to develop a suit that the sun can penetrate, so women can get a suntan," Şahin said.

eager = istekli, hevesli... to penetrate = nüfuz etmek, içine işlemek... suntan = güneşten bronzlaşma...

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PEOPLE AND EVENTS
THE REBIRTH OF THE MINELAYER NUSRET

from The NTVMSNBC, News in English http://www.ntvmsnbc.com

A Piece Of History Is To Be Restored To Its Former Glory

August 14— A small warship that helped change history and that symbolises the Ottoman victory in the 1915 Çanakkale (Gallipoli) Campaign is to be salvaged, restored and converted into a museum.

rebirth /-börØ/, düm-tek düzeninde = yeniden doğuş... minelayer = mayın döşeyici (to lay - laid - laid = yaymak, sermek kavramlarından)... minesweeper = mayın tarayıcı (sweep - swept - swept = süpürmek kavramından)... Metinlerden anladığım kadarıyla, pek az gemide her iki özelliğin birlikte olma durumu var, ama bu benim cahil mantığıma ters geliyor -- denizci bir arkadaş açıklık getirirse sevinirim...

is to be restored = restore edilecek (to be + mastar yapısı gelecek zaman bildirir. Burada: to be + be restored, pasif)...  former glory = önceki şan, eski ihtişam...

symbolyse = -yse mı yoksa -yze mı? Bu çetrefil konuyu işleyen bir çalışmayı websitemize ekledim. http://www.oursworld.net/ingilizce-ders/diger-kaynak/co-build.htm adresinde madde 3'e bknz.

to salvage /SÆL-vic/ düm-tek düzeninde = kurtarmak (buradaki gibi, veya yangından vb ile sınırlı kullanınız; yani örneğin insan hayatı filan için kullanılmaz)... to convert = dönüştürmek... Onun için üstü açılır/kapanır arabalar yada ulusal paralar "convertible" oluyor, yada olmuyor...

The minelayer Nusret, which for many years has been lying half sunk and abandoned in the port of Tarsus in the southern province of Mersin, is to be raised and restored.

The = gemi isimlerinden önce "the" kullanılır: The Yavuz, gibi... half sunk = Geçerli bir ifade, ancak to sink - sank - sunk fiilinin (az sayıdaki öteki başka fiiller gibi) past participle'ı (üçüncü hali) sıfat olarak kullanıldığında farklıdır: SUNKEN -- Yani "a sunk ship" diyemezsiniz, "a sunken ship" demek zorundasınız...

During the Çanakkale War, known to the rest of the world as the Gallipoli Campaign, the Nusret won a place in history due to her contribution to the defeat of an Anglo-French fleet that was attempting to force its way through the Dardanelles.

campaigne /kım-PEYN/ sözcüğünün anlamı için iyi bir örnek: "Gelibolu Muharebeleri"... Başka yerde "sefer" sözcüğü ile de çevrilebilir: Yani, belli bir amaca dönük bir "sefer" diyebiliriz; ancak birden fazla muharebe ve ilgili eylemleri içeren bir "sefer"...

to force one's way through = zorla geçmeğe çalışmak...

On the night of March 7-8, the vessel, under the command of Captain Hakkı Bey, laid a field of 26 mines in the waterway, in an area where Allied warships had been observed to manoeuvre during earlier bombardments of the Ottoman defences.

vessel = tekne, sandaldan transatlantik'e hertürlü deniz aracı... waterway = denizde geçiş yolu... alliance /ı-LAİ-ıns/ =ittifak... ally /Æ-lai/ = müttefik (çoğul: allies /Æ-laiz/ )...  the Allied Forces = Dünya Savaşındaki "Müttefik" Kuvvetler...

On March 18, when the Allied fleet of 18 battleships entered the strait, three of the vessels: the British warships Ocean and Irresistible and the French battleship Bouvet, struck mines laid by the Nusret and were sunk. Three other ships, the French Suffen and Gaulois and the Royal Navy battle cruiser Inflexible were damaged by shell fire from the shore.

fleet = filo... the strait = boğaz (Çanakkale Boğazı kastediliyor)... the Dire Straits ("uğursuz, meşum, tehlikeli, felaketli boğazlar" -- en beğendiğim müzik gruplarından)...

to strike - struck - struck = vurmak çarpmak, fiilinden... Öte yandan, strike = grev (işvereni çarpmak?)... Bu fiilin de sıfat türevi farklıdır: stricken... Örnek: panic-stricken crowds = paniğe kapılmış kalabalıklar (paniğin vurduğu)... battle = muharebe... cruiser /KRU-zı/ = "kruvazör"... to cruise = denizde (sürekli ve normal hızda) seyretmek, yada gezmek... (Arabanızda da, uzun yolda "cruising speed" yapıyorsunuz: ortalama rahat hız)... shell fire = top ateşi...

After the naval defeat the Allied commanders then launched an invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, withdrawing after seven months of fighting, defeated by the Ottoman army under the command of the German General Liman von Sanders.

naval /NEY-vıl/ = denizciliğe veya donanmaya ilişkin (navy = donanma, sözcüğünden)... to launch /LO:NÇ/ = 1. başlatmak; 2. denize tekne indirmek; 3. havaya/uzaya füze/uydu vb fırlatmak... to withdraw = geri çekmek veya çekilmek (yani pekçok başka fiil gibi, hem geçişli hem geçişsiz kullanılabilir). withdrawal symptoms = ilaç/uyuşturucu bırakma semptomları/sıkıntıları... withdrawal method = şey, nasıl söylesem ki: bir doğum kontrol yöntemi işte...

Mustafa Kemal, later to be known as Atatürk and become the founder of the modern Turkish republic, served with distinction during the land campaign, twice thwarting Allied advances.

to thwart = boşa çıkarmak, "akamete" uğratmak... served with distinction ("distinct" sözcüğünden) = seçkin hizmet verdi, hizmetiyle dikkatleri üzerinde topladı... land campaign = kara savaşları...

The Turkish company Ç**** Mühendislik, which won the tender to salvage and restore the Nusret says that the work to return the minelayer to its original form will take about 90 days.

tender = ihale...

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